- apropos command
- man command
Locate commands by keyword lookup.
Terminate your current session, or shell.
Display the Unix manual page describing a given Unix command.
- File System Navigation
Return to your home directory.
Change directory to make directory your current directory.
Determine file type.
List the contents of the current directory.
List the contents of the directories; names can name files and/or directories:
. . . in a long format, showing permissions, owner, size, and other file info.
. . . all files, including “hidden” files (file names that begin with a dot “.”).
. . . Recursively, for all subdirectories.
. . . in time order (when modified, newest to oldest) rather than in name order.
Display the name of the current directory, or “print working directory.”
Reduces the size of a file.
Restores compressed files to their original form.
cp file1 file2
cp files directory
Copy file(s) into a directory.
cp -r dir1 dir2
Copy a directory and, recursively, its subdirectories.
Create, or “make” a directory.
mv file1 file2
Move a file or, if file1 and file2 are in the same directory, rename a file.
mv files directory
Move files into a directory.
mv dir1 dir2
If directory dir2 exists, move dir1 into dir2; otherwise, rename dir1 as dir2.
Remove (erase) file(s).
rm -r names
Remove files, directories, and recursively, any subdirectories.
Remove directory (directory must be empty).
Concatenate file(s); you can use cat to display the contents of a file (this is not advisable if the file is a binary file).
grep “pattern” files
Display all lines in the files that match a pattern.
Display contents of files one screen at a time.
Order the lines in a file or files alphabetically (this command does not alter the file or files — it merely displays the sorted output to the screen):
sort -r files
. . . in reverse order.
sort -n files
. . . numerically (puts 2 before 10 instead of after).
Connect to a remote host using Secure Shell.
Repeat last shell command.
Repeat last shell command that began with string (for example, type “!m” to repeat the last command that began with “m”).
Display a calendar of the current month.
cal month year
Display a calendar of the given month and year. Note that the year must be fully qualified, for example, “2003” and not “03.”
Clears terminal screen.
Display the current local date and time.
Display a list of users currently logged in.