shell scripting – 3

Working with Directories

Directory structure and some file operation commands

Suppose if you want to group files and separated from other files or you want others not to look in your work area what you should do?

You need to arrange them as directories a directory is a logical separator of your files,even though you don’t know how are they arranged on the hard disk.

In any operating system files are arranged in parent child relation only, and even your work area will be separated you cannot look into other persons work area only you can know who is other person.A root user can look at both the user files.By default you will be in your home directory(ex:/home/usr_sh1).

directory structure

Get current working directory path

    want to know the path of current working directory use command pwd.

    $ pwd
    /tmp

    gives you the current working directory.

Changing directory

To change directory use command “cd and path” the path can be either relative or absolute.

    1. change directory using “cd directory”(relative path)
    /tmp
    $ cd directory/

    /tmp/directory
    $
    2.change directory using absolute path
    /tmp
    $ cd /tmp/directory/

    /tmp/directory
    $
    3.Go to previous directory
    /tmp/directory
    $ cd ..
    /tmp
    $
    4. Want to go two level directories down use cd ../..
    3.Go to previous directory
    /tmp/directory
    $ cd ../..
    /
    $

Creating directory, deleting directory and moving directory

    1.create a directory – mkdir directory name or absolute path

    /tmp/directory
    $ ls -l
    total 0
    drwxr-xr-x+ 2 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:28 dir1
    drwxr-xr-x+ 2 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:28 dir2
    drwxr-xr-x+ 2 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:28 dir3
    drwxr-xr-x+ 2 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:28 dir4
    -rw-r–r– 1 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:28 text.txt
    -rw-r–r– 1 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:28 text2.txt

    /tmp/directory
    $ ls -l
    total 0
    drwxr-xr-x+ 2 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:28 dir1
    drwxr-xr-x+ 2 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:28 dir2
    drwxr-xr-x+ 2 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:28 dir3
    drwxr-xr-x+ 2 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:28 dir4
    drwxr-xr-x+ 2 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:32 dir5
    -rw-r–r– 1 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:28 text.txt
    -rw-r–r– 1 shell_usr mkpasswd 0 Nov 10 14:28 text2.txt

    2. move a directory mv source destination
    3.remove a directory rm -r [options] directory

    Only empty directories can be removed with out option -r

Some more tips

1.ls – list contents of directory

    1.ls -a a implies all the contents starting with . and even hidden files
    [shell_test@localhost ~]$ ls -a
    . .cache .esd_auth .gvfs .mozilla .pulse-cookie .wapi
    .. .config .gconf .ICEauthority Music .recently-used.xbel .xsession-errors
    .adobe .dbus .gconfd .icedteaplugin .nautilus Templates .xsession-errors.old
    .bash_logout Desktop .gnome2 .imsettings.log Pictures .tomboy
    .bash_profile Documents .gnome2_private .local Public .tomboy.log
    .bashrc Download .gtk-bookmarks .macromedia .pulse Videos
    [shell_test@localhost ~]$

2. ls -A implies don’t show . and ..

    [shell_test@localhost ~]$ ls -A
    .adobe Desktop .gnome2_private .macromedia .pulse-cookie .xsession-errors
    .bash_logout Documents .gtk-bookmarks .mozilla .recently-used.xbel .xsession-errors.old
    .bash_profile Download .gvfs Music Templates
    .bashrc .esd_auth .ICEauthority .nautilus .tomboy
    .cache .gconf .icedteaplugin Pictures .tomboy.log
    .config .gconfd .imsettings.log Public Videos
    .dbus .gnome2 .local .pulse .wapi
    [shell_test@localhost ~]$

3.ls -l:

    [shell_test@localhost ~]$ ls -l
    total 32
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 shell_test shell_test 4096 2009-11-09 06:29 Desktop
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 shell_test shell_test 4096 2009-11-09 06:29 Documents
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 shell_test shell_test 4096 2009-11-09 06:29 Download
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 shell_test shell_test 4096 2009-11-09 06:29 Music
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 shell_test shell_test 4096 2009-11-09 06:29 Pictures
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 shell_test shell_test 4096 2009-11-09 06:29 Public
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 shell_test shell_test 4096 2009-11-09 06:29 Templates
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 shell_test shell_test 4096 2009-11-09 06:29 Videos
    [shell_test@localhost ~]$

4. want to see files in other directory just add directory path

    [shell_test@localhost ~]$ ls -l /sbin/
    total 15132
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 8096 2009-02-27 10:29 accton
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 5916 2009-09-17 16:14 addpart
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 20272 2009-09-17 16:14 agetty
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 88768 2009-09-07 17:24 alsactl
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 50928 2009-07-16 14:05 arp
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 15080 2009-02-26 03:33 arping
    -rwxr-x—. 1 root root 95984 2009-10-17 22:37 audispd
    -rwxr-x—. 1 root root 120636 2009-10-17 22:37 auditctl
    -rwxr-x—. 1 root root 174116 2009-10-17 22:37 auditd
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 144560 2009-10-17 22:37 aureport
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 156944 2009-10-17 22:37 ausearch
    -rwxr-x—. 1 root root 96096 2009-10-17 22:37 autrace
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 22836 2009-06-24 23:10 badblocks
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 13224 2009-06-24 23:10 blkid
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 13488 2009-09-17 16:14 blockdev
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 33558 2009-04-14 16:47 cbq
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 8516 2009-04-08 01:16 cciss_id
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 62320 2009-09-17 16:14 cfdisk
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 29888 2009-03-10 01:35 chkconfig
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 2009-11-08 13:36 clock -> hwclock
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 5456 2009-05-02 02:11 consoletype
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 10512 2009-10-02 00:20 crda
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 19288 2009-02-24 15:28 cryptsetup
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 5952 2009-09-17 16:14 ctrlaltdel
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 80912 2009-06-24 23:10 debugfs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 5844 2009-09-17 16:14 delpart
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 116664 2009-05-20 07:26 depmod
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 546396 2009-08-27 03:06 dhclient
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 17379 2009-06-27 08:34 dhclient-script
    -rwxr-x—. 1 root root 148888 2009-05-07 05:29 dhcp6c
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 231796 2009-04-20 18:30 dmraid
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 6 2009-11-08 13:11 dmraid.static -> dmraid
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 52160 2009-07-29 01:10 dmsetup
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 54704 2009-02-24 18:08 dosfsck
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 52560 2009-02-24 18:08 dosfslabel
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 77068 2009-06-22 18:33 dump
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 15872 2009-06-24 23:10 dumpe2fs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 184200 2009-06-24 23:10 e2fsck
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 15852 2009-06-24 23:10 e2image
    -rwxr-xr-x. 3 root root 35464 2009-06-24 23:10 e2label
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 9660 2009-06-24 23:10 e2undo
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 12792 2009-07-16 14:05 ether-wake
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 170372 2009-03-08 02:12 ethtool
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 99052 2009-09-17 16:14 fdisk
    -rwxr-xr-x. 3 root root 35464 2009-06-24 23:10 findfs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 6921 2009-09-25 08:43 fixfiles
    -r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root 11376 2009-07-29 01:10 fsadm
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 24136 2009-06-24 23:10 fsck
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 9656 2009-09-17 16:14 fsck.cramfs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 184200 2009-06-24 23:10 fsck.ext2
    -rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 184200 2009-06-24 23:10 fsck.ext3
    -rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 184200 2009-06-24 23:10 fsck.ext4
    -rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 184200 2009-06-24 23:10 fsck.ext4dev
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 2009-11-08 13:17 fsck.msdos -> dosfsck
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 2009-11-08 13:17 fsck.vfat -> dosfsck
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 450 2009-06-16 22:01 fsck.xfs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 5788 2009-05-02 02:11 fstab-decode
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 25336 2009-02-27 10:34 fuser
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 8978 2009-05-20 07:26 generate-modprobe.conf
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 5496 2009-05-02 02:11 genhostid
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 8372 2009-05-02 02:11 getkey
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 724472 2009-06-04 19:27 grub
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 43932 2009-09-02 14:28 grubby
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 17896 2009-06-04 19:26 grub-install
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 2293 2009-06-04 19:26 grub-md5-crypt
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 2473 2009-06-04 19:26 grub-terminfo
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 6 2009-11-08 13:05 halt -> reboot
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 102776 2009-07-18 02:33 hdparm
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 41700 2009-09-17 16:14 hwclock
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 3056 2009-04-14 16:47 ifcfg
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 71628 2009-07-16 14:05 ifconfig
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 924 2009-05-02 02:05 ifdown
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 19032 2009-02-26 03:33 ifenslave
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 26544 2009-02-26 01:07 ifrename
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 4217 2009-05-02 02:05 ifup
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 132804 2009-07-22 17:32 init
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 78892 2009-07-22 17:32 initctl
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 19312 2009-05-02 02:11 initlog
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 9692 2009-05-20 07:26 insmod
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 585568 2009-05-20 07:26 insmod.static
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 37992 2009-08-05 20:30 install-info
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 2539 2009-09-02 14:28 installkernel
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 221960 2009-04-14 16:47 ip
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 36448 2009-03-30 18:34 ip6tables
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 44540 2009-03-30 18:34 ip6tables-multi
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 41212 2009-03-30 18:34 ip6tables-restore
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 38648 2009-03-30 18:34 ip6tables-save
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 14820 2009-07-16 14:05 ipmaddr
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 36896 2009-03-30 18:34 iptables
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 54876 2009-03-30 18:34 iptables-multi
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 41212 2009-03-30 18:34 iptables-restore
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 38996 2009-03-30 18:34 iptables-save
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 19100 2009-07-16 14:05 iptunnel
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 72252 2009-10-02 00:40 iw
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 24976 2009-02-26 01:07 iwconfig
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 14784 2009-02-26 01:07 iwevent
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 10480 2009-02-26 01:07 iwgetid
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 31380 2009-02-26 01:07 iwlist
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 11588 2009-02-26 01:07 iwpriv
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 10656 2009-02-26 01:07 iwspy
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 13548 2009-02-26 14:49 killall5
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 41848 2009-04-08 01:16 kpartx
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 745988 2009-08-19 20:32 ldconfig
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 48048 2009-07-22 17:32 logd
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 8844 2009-06-24 23:10 logsave
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 24804 2009-09-17 16:14 losetup
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 510 2009-09-02 14:28 lsinitrd
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 8932 2009-05-20 07:26 lsmod
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 64648 2009-10-26 22:04 lspci
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 9 2009-11-08 16:07 lspcmcia -> pccardctl
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 78936 2009-02-26 08:32 lsusb
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvchange -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvconvert -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvcreate -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvdisplay -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvextend -> lvm
    -r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root 683888 2009-07-29 01:10 lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvmchange -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvmdiskscan -> lvm
    -r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root 5849 2009-07-29 01:10 lvmdump
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvmsadc -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvmsar -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvreduce -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvremove -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvrename -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvresize -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvs -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 lvscan -> lvm
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 28180 2009-03-09 00:20 MAKEDEV
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 8204 2009-04-08 18:42 matchpathcon
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 332748 2009-06-30 01:03 mdadm
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 1022496 2009-06-30 01:03 mdadm.static
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 224072 2009-06-30 01:03 mdmon
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 12148 2009-06-04 00:19 microcode_ctl
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 18208 2009-07-16 14:05 mii-diag
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 14120 2009-07-16 14:05 mii-tool
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 13740 2009-02-26 10:23 mingetty
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 30352 2009-02-24 18:08 mkdosfs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 56380 2009-06-24 23:10 mke2fs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 7380 2009-09-17 16:14 mkfs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 19168 2009-09-17 16:14 mkfs.cramfs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 56380 2009-06-24 23:10 mkfs.ext2
    -rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 56380 2009-06-24 23:10 mkfs.ext3
    -rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 56380 2009-06-24 23:10 mkfs.ext4
    -rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root 56380 2009-06-24 23:10 mkfs.ext4dev
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 2009-11-08 13:17 mkfs.msdos -> mkdosfs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 89772 2009-02-26 15:19 mkfs.ntfs
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 2009-11-08 13:17 mkfs.vfat -> mkdosfs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 328924 2009-06-16 22:01 mkfs.xfs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 17940 2009-04-10 21:45 mkhomedir_helper
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 45582 2009-09-02 14:28 mkinitrd
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 16540 2009-09-17 16:14 mkswap
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 72136 2009-05-20 07:26 modinfo
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 95288 2009-05-20 07:26 modprobe
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 30836 2009-10-01 20:23 mount.cifs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 8556 2009-09-28 14:55 mount.fuse
    -rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root 92768 2009-10-19 22:42 mount.nfs
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 9 2009-11-08 14:24 mount.nfs4 -> mount.nfs
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 13 2009-11-08 13:24 mount.ntfs -> mount.ntfs-3g
    -rwxr-xr–. 1 root root 38176 2009-04-03 18:55 mount.ntfs-3g
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 13 2009-11-08 13:24 mount.ntfs-fuse -> mount.ntfs-3g
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 579 2009-09-17 16:14 mount.tmpfs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 366 2009-04-08 01:16 mpath_wait
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 17248 2009-04-08 01:16 multipath
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 53556 2009-04-08 01:16 multipathd
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 11064 2009-07-16 14:05 nameif
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 107816 2009-09-02 14:28 nash
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 24724 2009-07-16 14:05 netplugd
    -rwxr-sr-x. 1 root root 6136 2009-05-02 02:11 netreport
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 12451 2009-09-02 14:28 new-kernel-pkg
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 5360 2009-09-17 16:14 nologin
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 39128 2009-04-10 21:45 pam_console_apply
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 9580 2009-04-10 21:45 pam_tally
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 11364 2009-04-10 21:45 pam_tally2
    -rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root 7576 2009-04-10 21:45 pam_timestamp_check
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 89792 2009-05-08 20:59 parted
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 21624 2009-05-08 20:59 partprobe
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 19728 2009-09-17 16:14 partx
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 32800 2009-03-12 18:45 pccardctl
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 8 2009-11-08 13:09 pidof -> killall5
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 5288 2009-09-17 16:14 pivot_root
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 7832 2009-07-16 14:05 plipconfig
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 47888 2009-05-15 19:47 plymouthd
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 11 2009-11-08 13:17 portrelease -> portreserve
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 11000 2009-02-27 15:47 portreserve
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 6 2009-11-08 13:05 poweroff -> reboot
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 25008 2009-05-02 02:11 ppp-watch
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 pvchange -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 pvck -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 pvcreate -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 pvdisplay -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 pvmove -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 pvremove -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 pvresize -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 pvs -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 pvscan -> lvm
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 101476 2009-10-22 11:56 quotacheck
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 2009-11-08 15:45 quotaoff -> quotaon
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 69696 2009-10-22 11:56 quotaon
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 18500 2009-02-26 03:33 rdisc
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 4 2009-11-08 13:24 rdump -> dump
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 21416 2009-08-13 16:42 readahead
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 23472 2009-08-13 16:42 readahead-collector
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 50376 2009-07-22 17:32 reboot
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 8332 2009-10-02 00:20 regdbdump
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 36380 2009-06-24 23:10 resize2fs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 119600 2009-06-22 18:33 restore
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 8 2009-11-08 15:12 restorecon -> setfiles
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 11720 2009-05-20 07:26 rmmod
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 16340 2009-06-22 18:33 rmt
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 11256 2009-02-26 03:29 rngd
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 54128 2009-07-16 14:05 route
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 51576 2009-06-25 20:33 rpcbind
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 45044 2009-10-19 22:42 rpc.statd
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 2009-11-08 13:24 rrestore -> restore
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 294408 2009-07-12 17:20 rsyslogd
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 32384 2009-04-14 16:47 rtmon
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 47360 2009-07-22 17:32 runlevel
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 43452 2009-09-08 14:22 runuser
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 19 2009-11-08 14:47 scsi_id -> ../lib/udev/scsi_id
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 7656 2009-05-02 02:11 securetty
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 1692 2009-05-02 02:11 service
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 22152 2009-09-25 08:43 setfiles
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 18524 2009-10-26 22:04 setpci
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 708 2009-10-02 00:20 setregdomain
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 862 2009-05-02 02:11 setsysfont
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 57776 2009-09-17 16:14 sfdisk
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 62936 2009-07-22 17:32 shutdown
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 33752 2009-07-16 14:05 slattach
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 584984 2009-08-19 20:32 sln
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 2009-11-08 13:05 start -> initctl
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 7905 2009-09-14 22:37 start_udev
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 2009-11-08 13:05 status -> initctl
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 2009-11-08 13:05 stop -> initctl
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 15088 2009-02-26 14:49 sulogin
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 6 2009-11-08 13:36 swapoff -> swapon
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 22380 2009-09-17 16:14 swapon
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 12700 2009-02-24 15:50 sysctl
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 244460 2009-04-14 16:47 tc
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 55168 2009-07-22 17:32 telinit
    -rwxr-xr-x. 3 root root 35464 2009-06-24 23:10 tune2fs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 124892 2009-09-14 22:37 udevadm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 18 2009-11-08 14:47 udevcontrol -> ../../sbin/udevadm
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 116580 2009-09-14 22:37 udevd
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 18 2009-11-08 14:47 udevsettle -> ../../sbin/udevadm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 18 2009-11-08 14:47 udevtrigger -> ../../sbin/udevadm
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 14132 2009-10-01 20:23 umount.cifs
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 9628 2009-10-20 03:54 umount.devkit
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 7660 2009-08-12 14:29 umount.hal
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 9 2009-11-08 14:24 umount.nfs -> mount.nfs
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 9 2009-11-08 14:24 umount.nfs4 -> mount.nfs
    -rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root 29708 2009-04-10 21:45 unix_chkpwd
    -rwx——. 1 root root 29360 2009-04-10 21:45 unix_update
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 1754 2009-10-26 22:04 update-pciids
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 10832 2009-02-26 08:58 vconfig
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgcfgbackup -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgcfgrestore -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgchange -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgck -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgconvert -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgcreate -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgdisplay -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgexport -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgextend -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgimport -> lvm
    -r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root 10350 2009-07-29 01:10 vgimportclone
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgmerge -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgmknodes -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgreduce -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgremove -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgrename -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgs -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgscan -> lvm
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 2009-11-08 14:04 vgsplit -> lvm
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 18015 2009-05-20 07:26 weak-modules
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 564528 2009-06-16 22:01 xfs_repair
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 44288 2009-05-21 17:02 ypbind
    [shell_test@localhost ~]$

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